I work a lot with and on a particular piece of software called **MMT**, which was developed by Florian, so this is my attempt to explain what it does – which is not exactly easy, as you’ll see, but one of the things you can do with MMT is make computers (on some level) *understand* math, so here’s how that works:

MMT used to stand for * Module system for Mathematical Theories*, but by now Florian prefers the acronym to stand for

*or*

**M**eta-**M**eta-**T**ool*(which is probably more accurate, since by now math is only*

**M**eta-**M**eta-**T**heory*one*of its domains of application).

MMT consists of two parts: A formal language (*OMDoc/MMT*) and a corresponding software and API for managing documents in that language, so I’ll first explain how the former works and then what the latter is capable of.

(A slightly more technical introduction to MMT can be found here)

## The OMDoc/MMT Language

**OMDoc/MMT** is a *description language* based on *OpenMath*, a simple XML-based language to describe mathematical expressions with respect to their semantics. Exemplary, the expression in OpenMath would look like this:

<OMOBJ> <OMA> <OMS name="sin" cd="transc1"/> <OMV name="x"/> </OMA> </OMOBJ>

The `OMA`

stands for an *application* of a symbol, `OMS`

for a previously declared *symbol* in some *content dictionary* (i.e. a document declaring new symbols, given by the `cd=`

…-tag) and `OMV`

represents a *variable*. Expressions like these are called *objects* in OpenMath (hence the `OMOBJ`

tag).

The advantage of OpenMath when compared to other description languages like *LaTeX* (which of course, is solely for presentation and thus not directly comparable) is, that it distinguishes between symbols with the *same notation*. For example, the composition of two functions is usually denoted by – however, so is the composition of two arbitrary elements of some general monoid/group etc. In OpenMath, function composition and monoid composition are two distinct symbols, even though they are denoted the same way. By contrast, in LaTeX for example both are just expressed as `f\circ g`

with no information, what `f`

,`g`

and `\circ`

actually *mean*.

Furthermore, the content dictionaries can (and should) not just declare the symbols, but also provide their definitions and additional information (such as examples). This is what the entry for the *logarithm* looks like in its OpenMath content dictionary:

<CDDefinition> <Name> log </Name> <Description> This symbol represents a binary log function; the first argument is the base, to which the second argument is log'ed. It is defined in Abramowitz and Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, section 4.1 </Description> <CMP> a^b = c implies log_a c = b </CMP> <FMP> <OMOBJ> <OMA> <OMS cd="logic1" name="implies"/> <OMA> <OMS cd="relation1" name="eq"/> <OMA> <OMS cd="arith1" name="power"/> <OMV name="a"/> <OMV name="b"/> </OMA> <OMV name="c"/> </OMA> <OMA> <OMS cd="relation1" name="eq"/> <OMA> <OMS cd="transc1" name="log"/> <OMV name="a"/> <OMV name="c"/> </OMA> <OMV name="b"/> </OMA> </OMA> </OMOBJ> </FMP> </CDDefinition>

…where `CMP`

is the *defining mathematical property* of the symbol in natural language and `FMP`

the same property expressed as an OpenMath object. That way, every usage of a symbol is intrinsically linked to its definition, and (if possible) the definition itself is expressed formally in OpenMath – this is a big step towards linking mathematical expressions to their actual *semantics*.

Michael then extended OpenMath to not just cover mathematical *formulae*, but actual mathematical *documents* – the result was OMDoc, adding features such as definitions, theorems, proofs, examples etc. and additional *narrative* structure: It (in theory) allows for describing the content and structure of arbitrary formal documents such as papers, textbooks, lecture notes etc. OMDoc introduces the following three leveled knowledge structure:

**Object level:**formulae (as in OpenMath) are OMDoc*objects.***Statement level:**OMDoc*statements*are named objects of a certain type (*definition*,*theorem*,…).**Theory level:**OMDoc statements are collected in theories, which are backwards compatible to OpenMath content dictionaries.

Additionally, OMDoc adds various way to *connect* theories via *morphisms*, giving rise to the notion of a **theory graph**. For example, theories can simply *import* other theories (making the contents of the imported theory available to the importing theory). Other morphisms can act like imports but *change* names or other properties of the imported symbols, or simply *map* statements in one theory to mathematical expressions over the contents of another theory:

The above theory graph shows the development of the theory of *rings* – a ring has two ingoing morphisms and , the former for the *additive group* of the ring, the latter for its *multiplicative monoid*. Additionally, the theory of groups inherits (i.e. imports) from the theory of monoids, which in turn extends the theory of semigroups.

Now, why are theory graphs useful? Because they allow us to build theories according to the *little theories* approach. The inheritance arrows between theories allow us to also inherit provable results, without the need of reproving them again – just as we do it in mathematical practice. If I know that a ring is a group, I know every result that holds for groups in general also holds for rings. If I know a group is a monoid, I know everything that holds for monoids also holds for groups. It allows me to state (and prove) everything on the most general level.

Finally, MMT/OMDoc is just a slight adaption of OMDoc, most prominently it introduces the notion of a *constant* on the statement level. A constant is a named symbol with (optionally) a *“**type”* object, a *“definition”* object and additional information such as its *notation* and what *role* the constant plays in a larger context (e.g. *equality* or *simplification rule*).

However, MMT/OMDoc still does not fix any *meaning* to the words *type* or *defintion* – it is still just a description language without any inherent rules. The same holds for theories – they are just collections of declarations without any fixed semantics. In Florian’s terms, MMT is *foundation independent*. That’s because MMT/OMDoc strives to be general enough to capture the (abstract) *syntax*, *semantics* and *proof theory* of *any arbitrary formal language* (in addition to the *narrative elements* of documents).

Of course, nobody would want to write OMDoc files by hand – which is why MMT adds a surface language, that allows for creating MMT/OMDoc documents more easily. As an example, the following is a valid document in MMTs surface syntax:

namespace http://cds.omdoc.org/example GS theory Foo : ur:?LF = Nat : type US # ℕ RS plus : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ US # 1 + 2 RS GS

“Compiled” into OMDOc, the above code would yield this:

<omdoc> <theory name="Foo" base="http://cds.omdoc.org/example" meta="http://cds.omdoc.org/urtheories?LF"> <constant name="Nat"> <type><OMOBJ> <OMS base="http://cds.omdoc.org/urtheories" module="Typed" name="type"/> </OMOBJ></type> <notations> <notation dimension="1" fixity="mixfix" arguments="ℕ"/> </notations> </constant> <constant name="plus"> <type><OMOBJ> <OMA> <OMS base="http://cds.omdoc.org/urtheories" module="LambdaPi" name="arrow"/> <OMS base="http://cds.omdoc.org/example" module="Foo" name="Nat"/> <OMS base="http://cds.omdoc.org/example" module="Foo" name="Nat"/> </OMA> </OMOBJ></type> <notations> <notation dimension="1" fixity="mixfix" arguments="1 + 2"/> </notations> </constant> </theory> </omdoc>

A more comprehensive description of both MMTs surface language as well as the abstract language of OMDoc/MMT can be found here.

The nice thing about MMTs surface syntax is, that – as in the example above – we can attach *notations* to our constants, that mirror the notations that are actually used in mathematical practice and which we can then use to write formulae. Notations also allow for *implicit arguments*, which again mirror mathematical practice and are quite convenient.

Suppose, we wanted to give an operator for declaring some function to be *injective*. The type of such an operator would be something like

It takes the domain and codomain of a function, the function itself and returns the proposition, that is injective. The operator has to take domain and codomain as argument, because otherwise I can’t even state the (required) type of the argument function . But if I know the type of , I also know the domain and codomain – stating them each time I want to declare a function as injective would be most annoying, so I can give a notation `# 3 is injective`

, which only uses the third argument and thus leaves the first and second one implicit (and thus to be inferred by the MMT system, ultimately). Now if I have a function around, I can just write `f is injective`

and I’m done.

## The MMT System

So, the question remains, what we can do with OMDoc/MMT documents – after all, just having the language itself is rather pointless. This is where the MMT system comes into play.

At its core, MMT is an API written in Scala (which compiles into .class files and hence is “backwards compatible” with Java) – i.e. a library of classes and functions related to OMDoc content. At its center, it has an (executable) controller, that provides various user interfaces and is extended by arbitrary plugins providing various features and commands. This plugin architecture allows MMT to be highly generic and extensible, and all of its core classes are attempted to be implemented modularly and in various stages of abstraction, to make adding additional features and support for new systems and languages as easy and convenient as possible. A comprehensive description can be found here, so I’ll restrict myself to a list of things MMT provides and what they can be (and are) used for:

- A
**backend**that manages OMDoc/MMT libraries and stores/reads them into memory from various sources (files, databases etc.). - A
**build system**, that takes documents in some format and converts them to (primarily, but not necessarily) OMDoc files, separating its contents into the actual (semi-formal) content, its narrative structure in the original document and all relational information (i.e. how all the modules relate to each other via theory morphisms like inclusions). - This is managed via an abstract class
**Importer**, that combines a**parser**and an (optional)**type-checker**for any arbitrary formal language and returns well-formed OMDoc elements; the build manager then handles all the input and output, the archive structure, keeping track of dependencies, the communication with the backend etc.

Standard implementations for a parser are the one for MMTs*surface syntax*and one for the*Twelf*syntax, but by now we also have one for (mostly xml-exports of) the Mizar, HOLLight and PVS systems.

The type checker is also implemented as generically as possible, so that all a user needs to do is implement the checking*rules*and none of the algorithmic “boilerplate” stuff – exemplary, we have a checker for the logical framework LF, whose implementation (basically) just consists of a scala object for each of the inference rules of the -calculus.

I implemented extensions of the latter by standard type constructors (-types, coproducts, finite types,…) up to a logical framework based on*homotopy type theory*– in each case by just implementing the rules alone as separate scala objects. Building a logical framework / foundational logic couldn’t be more convenient 🙂 - A
**theorem prover**, which similarly to the type checker can be supplied with foundation-dependent rules. It’s not even remotely comparable to state-of-the-art theorem provers (which, I guess, it can’t reasonably expected to), but works surprisingly well for “trivial” things, and can of course – as a general class – be used as a basis to implement your own algorithm. - A
**shell**which can be used as a frontend to issue commands (e.g. building) to the MMT system. - An
**IDE**in the form of a jEdit-Plugin, which offers syntax highlighting, auto-completion and access to the shell. - A
**server**which can be used to browse and present the contents of available archives - A
**presenter**-class that outputs available content as e.g. text, html, latex… (the html presenter is e.g. used by the server, the text presenter by the shell)

So basically, the MMT system can be used as a generic *“engine”* to conveniently and quickly implement arbitrary formal systems without the developer having to care about all the boilerplate stuff that* isn’t part of the purely formal specification* of the system. Everything works via *plugins*, so adding new features, imports or instances of any of the above abstract features is intended to be *as convenient as possible*.

Furthermore, it can serve as a ** common framework** for various different systems – if you consider my Ph.D. topic, you’ll notice that this is pretty much

*the perfect system*to work on knowledge management across different formal libraries – once I have import methods for all the systems I want to work on, I have

*a common system in which to talk about and access all of them at once*. And it allows for implementing features such as expression translation, identification of content overlap etc. on an

*extremely generic*level.

Which ultimately is exactly what MMT wants to be – in every aspect ** as generic as possible**.